Young Somali soccer players find fun in fitness, learn soccer skills playing on girls-only team

33Toronto Girls Soccer Association (TGSA) founder and coach Hanan Warsame is pictured here (at far right) with team sponsor Hodan Nalayeh of Integration TV (centre) and some of the 25 girls aged five to 13 who make up the team. Warsame is currently looking for sponsors to help expand the TGSA, a volunteer-based not-for-profit that runs out of Kipling Collegiate and consists mainly of girls hailing from Etobicoke’s Somali Muslim community.


When Hanan Warsame first started the Toronto Girls Soccer Association (TGSA) six months ago, her young charges could hardly do a lap of the Kipling Collegiate gym without collapsing in heaps – but what a difference half a year makes.

These days, the girls on Warsame’s fledgling year-round soccer team – the vast majority of whom hail from north Etobicoke’s Somali Muslim community – can’t seem to get enough exercise.

“I’ve learned how to do kick-ups, how to pass, and how to score,” 10-year-old Mariam enthused at a recent TGSA practice, shortly before running off to join her teammates for an intense session of running and dribbling drills. “I’ve also learned how to keep the ball up in the air and do headers. It’s cool.”

Mariam and her teammates weren’t always so enthusiastic about soccer, though – especially the running part.

“It was really challenging in the beginning. It was very shocking for me to see these girls not be able to run more than two minutes without asking for a water break – and it wasn’t even just one or two of them, it was, like, 95 per cent if them,” said Warsame of the 25 girls aged five to 13 who play on the TGSA team for two hours every Tuesday and Saturday evening.

“But now these girls, they can run, because I pushed them and pushed them and pushed them. They hated me for it at first, but now they love it and they want to keep on running.”

Born in Somalia, 25-year-old Warsame was raised by her soccer fanatic father alongside an equally soccer-loving older brother in the Netherlands. So it wasn’t surprising when, by age four, she too had taken up the sport with a vengeance.

“I was always playing soccer, always had a ball playing on the streets outside, to the point I was playing four times a week on two different teams,” the Dixon Road area resident said during a break from a recent TGSA practice at Kipling Collegiate.

After a short hiatus from the sport during her university days, Warsame moved to Toronto two years ago and soon began volunteer coaching a young boys’ soccer team. It was while overseeing those boys that she said she began to take notice of her players’ sisters sitting bored on the sidelines – many of them looking like they wished they could be out there playing, too.

And so, soon after, TGSA was born out of Warsame’s desire to instill in young Somali girls – who she said are too often left sitting on the bench – the same love of sport that she grew up with.

“In our culture, girls are often not the priority, so I thought why should I wait,” said Warsame, noting that she had TGSA registered as a not-for-profit organization last May, and then began seeking out volunteers and sponsorships to help make her dream girls team a reality.

One of the first people Warsame approached to sponsor TGSA was well-known Somali broadcaster Hodan Nalayeh, whose Integration TV program was recently picked up by Feva TV and will now be broadcast across Canada, the U.S., the Caribbean and parts of Africa.

Nalayeh was “very supportive” of the idea of empowering her young female soccer players Warsame said and readily agreed to sponsor of TGSA’s uniforms – which Warsame said consists of ‘Integration TV’ emblazoned long-sleeved team jersey and pants, in accordance with parents’ wishes that their daughters be modestly dressed.

“I was blessed that I was able to get my show on the air, so when Hanan came to me (about sponsoring TGSA), I thought it was a great opportunity to pass my blessings on to someone else and help make her dream come true,” said Nalayeh, while watching the girls on the team run through drills wearing their Integration TV jerseys.

“I think the best feeling, for me, is seeing the confidence these girls show running around. They seem happier from the first time they started coming until now – it’s a big difference. It’s almost like their spirit changed, because, you know, with exercise, you get more endorphins,” Nalayeh added.

“I’m hoping that this year we can add more girls, because let’s face it, young Somali girls have a high obesity rate. We need to get them thinking about exercise and valuing activity, and not just sitting at home all day.”

In order to expand TGSA from its current roster of about 25 players, Warsame said she’s hoping to recruit more dedicated volunteers like Nasra Mahamed, a team mother who helps co-ordinate everything, and Abdirasak Mohamed, a former soccer player back in Somalia who is now helping out with some of the coaching duties.

“(The girls) started from zero, from scratch. Some of them didn’t even know how to kick a ball, but they’re making improvements,” Mohamed said of the progress he’s seen in the girls – including his daughter Mariam. “We run a lot, we do stretches, we show them how to drive the ball, and we teach them shooting and controlling the ball…There’s a lot of opportunities with being a soccer player, and we’re hoping, one day, some of these girls could get a scholarship.”

In order to expand TGSA, Warsame said she’s hoping for the support of local businesses and sponsors willing to offer the financial support necessary to help the team secure more player uniforms, more gym time, and an outdoor field for the summer season.

“Our next step is to get more girls involved, but to do that we need more coaches and more sponsors,” she said, noting that the team isn’t exclusive to the Somali community, but is open to girls of all different backgrounds. “We just want to keep motivating these girls to keep going and stay active. The most important thing is for the girls to have fun.”


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Female taxi driver in Wajir breaks barriers to earn bread

11Ladhan Salat the only female taxi driver in Wajir county. She says women should strive for any jobs to cater for their families. [Photo/Boniface Ongeri/STANDARD]



The motor vehicle with bold inscriptions ‘Qali Ladhan’ cruising on the rugged roads of Wajir town leaving behind plumes of dust is a rare spectacle.

But it is not the vehicle that is causing excitement. It is feminine figure of Ladhan Salat behind the wheel.

Necks crane as men, women and children argue amongst themselves over who they just saw behind the steering wheel.

Ladhan is alert to the commotion she is causing and occasionally waves to the dumbfounded residents as she speeds off to her destination.

The taxi business is usually stiff. But Salat has taken her competitors head-on in a county where women are generally expected to be home keepers and not eking out a living among aggressive business rivals.

She stands out as the only woman in the trade in the entire North Eastern region.

Yet despite not looking like your typical taxi operator, Salat has carved out a niche in the business that has swayed between good and bad times since 2013.

Despite the wider challenges still faced by women in this highly conservative community, and the impact of lingering insecurity, Salat’s taxi business has grown from strength to strength.

When she ventured into the male dominated business, Salat says, she did not face any hostility; only some initial puzzlement from male taxi operators and the community.

“Now the community is used to seeing me in the business, but at the beginning they were quite surprised,” she said.

Despite having no prior business experience, she decided to venture into the trade after pondering over her father’s vehicle that was parked in their backyard.

“I did not have job. So one day, I approached my father about venturing into the taxi business using his car.”

Surprisingly, her father had no problem with her requested. She immediately joined a driving school and after successful completion she went into business.

Her uncle had earlier operated the car as a taxi but he abandoned it after disagreeing with her father about profits. This made it easier for her as she did not have to change the car to a PSV.

Her first operation area was Griftu, about 40km west of Wajir town.

Salat, the second born in a family of 12 siblings, was determined to succeed.

“This business supports my whole family. Business is good for me because I can make up to Sh10,000 on a good day. On a bad day, I make about Sh4,000 after deducting all expenses.”

Despite overtures from some of her male customers seeking her hand in marriage, she says she will think about marriage after she has acquired at least three more taxis.

Already, she has bought another vehicle from her proceeds. It is the taxi she now drives.

Salat starts work as early as 4am and finishes as late as midnight. However, she responds to every call regardless of the time. If you have passion for any kind of job, go for it; do not think that it is exclusively for men, she advises.

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A onetime refugee aims high


“Of course, I think about the instability, I think about the insecurity, I think about the challenges that lie ahead, but I think these challenges face women wherever they are,” said future Somalian presidential candidate Fadumo Dayib, who is graduating from the Harvard Kennedy School. “But the ultimate challenge really is: How far am I willing to go with my convictions?” Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard Staff Photographer


By Christina Pazzanese

For Fadumo Dayib, the notion of home is a complicated one.
A Mason Fellow in the Mid-Career Master in Public Administration program at the Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), Dayib was born in Kenya, the daughter of uneducated Somali parents. Her father, a truck driver, and her mother, a “nomad,” had left Somalia to start their new life together in neighboring Kenya.

But the history of political and ethnic tensions between the two countries meant she and her family were never accepted by Kenyan society, said Dayib. In 1989, they were arrested and deported amid the spread of civil war in Somalia.

“One of my earliest memories of being a second-class citizen, an unwanted person, a displaced person, was when they handed me a small card that said, ‘Go home,’” Dayib recalled. “And that was the boarding pass that I used to get on Somali Airlines to leave Kenya.”

Finland offered asylum to Dayib’s family, as it did to thousands of Somali refugees. But she felt that the refugee community was largely marginalized, tolerated but never truly wanted. Still, Dayib built a life there. She got married, had children, and found work as a nurse. Although she didn’t learn to read and write until age 14, she went on to get a master’s degree in health care sciences, and later a master’s in public health.

Still, she felt unfulfilled. A deep desire to help those suffering in Somalia gnawed at her. “I have to be there,” she told her husband. So in 2005, she left her family in Finland, taking only her breast-feeding baby along, and joined the United Nations and headed to Puntland, Somalia.

“The first night I slept soundly. I felt I was at home. I was on a mattress, but that was the best thing I ever could have ever done in my life,” Dayib said. “And I never looked back.”

With the U.N., she worked on maternal health issues and mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention, setting up clinics across Somalia. But security concerns prompted the U.N. to evacuate her to Nairobi six months later. More troubling, she said, was the hostility and distrust Dayib felt from Somalis, the very people she was trying to aid.

“It was very similar to what the Finns were telling me: ‘Leave this country, you’re taking over our jobs,’” said Dayib. “So I’m like, ‘Where am I going to go?’ I left Finland because I felt unwanted, and I thought I can help you, and I really think I can help you.’ So, where do I belong?”

Reunited with her family, Dayib went to Fiji and Liberia, where she helped set up HIV prevention offices and trained health care providers for the U.N. over the next several years.

Seeing Liberia, which had recently emerged from its own long-term strife, brought Dayib’s thoughts once again to her ancestral land. “Why can’t Somalia be like this? I want to be in an environment like this where you don’t hear gunfire, girls are going to school, women are working, people feel happy,” she said.

So in 2013, she began work on a Ph.D. at the University of Helsinki on women’s governmental participation and empowerment in post-conflict societies.

After taking a break to attend HKS starting last fall, Dayib has high goals. She is preparing to run for president of Somalia in 2016.

She is quite clear about the difficulties she faces, particularly as a woman. “Of course, I think about the instability, I think about the insecurity, I think about the challenges that lie ahead, but I think these challenges face women wherever they are,” she said. “But the ultimate challenge really is: How far am I willing to go with my convictions?”

“It almost belittles what she’s trying to do to say she’s attempting to make history,” said Steve Jarding, a lecturer in public policy at HKS who teaches campaign management and political strategy. “It’s a bit more than that. I think it’s a profile in courage” for Dayib to seek office in a place where there are such “huge personal risks involved.” But with her “charisma,” “drive” and “remarkable” sense of public service, Jarding said Dayib has the power to unite the Somali diaspora and perhaps stir real change regardless of the election outcome. “I think in so many ways, Somalia and the world are already better.”

“Coming here was really to see how far I could push the envelope. I’ve always wanted to see how far I could go even when people tell me it’s impossible to do,” said Dayib. “My mother always told me, ‘You hold all the possibilities in your palms.’ And it’s true.”


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Why does Indonesia demand that female military recruits are virgins?



By Josephine McDermott

Human rights activists want Indonesia to stop so-called virginity tests being used in the recruitment of female military recruits.

“Bonkers”, “primitive” and “unscientific” are words used to describe it by one of the Human Rights Watch (HRW) researchers who interviewed women who had been subjected to the test.

The World Health Organization has said: “There is no place for virginity testing; it has no scientific validity.”

HRW says the tests are also discriminatory and have no bearing on a woman’s ability to perform her job.

What’s happening in Indonesia?
Virginity tests are obligatory for female military and national police recruits who are typically high school graduates aged between 18 and 20. HRW’s research indicates that the air force, army and navy have for decades also used the test on the fiancees of military officers before marriage.

It also says local governments and the civil service have been known to use the test. In February, officials in Jember, East Java, scrapped a plan to make high school girls be tested before they could graduate from high school.

What happens in a test?

In the test, known as the “two-finger test”, the doctor deduces the state of the hymen – a thin piece of membrane attached to the vaginal wall – and the size and so-called laxity of the vagina.

The test is supposed to assess whether a woman has had sex, but the state of the hymen offers little to answer this question, HRW says. They say a hymen may vary in size for many reasons unrelated to sex. It partly covers the vaginal opening and does not “seal it like a door”.

Military men need to be able to trust their wives, said one army wife when interviewed by HRW

Andreas Harsono was one of the HRW researchers who interviewed 11 Indonesian women, who were all military wives and female officers. He said they described two fingers being used to open the vagina while one finger was placed in the anus.

He said that on one occasion, when a woman told others waiting outside an examination room what had been done to her, all 23 applicants left.

He said that most were embarrassed by the procedure, and many were traumatised.

A female military physician told researchers that when she performed the tests in Jakarta, she found it difficult to persuade the women to take part. “It was not [just] a humiliating act… It was a torture. I decided not to do it again,” she said.

How important is it that recruits are virgins?
According to armed forces information chief Major Gen Fuad Basya, it’s a matter of national security.

He said: “If it is not restricted this way, then someone with a bad habit will become military personnel. Soldiers are a nation’s defenders. They defend a nation’s sovereignty, a country’s territory and security.”

He told local media if a candidate had lost her virginity out of wedlock her mental state would make her unfit to become a soldier.

He said “It may be because of an accident, disease or because of a habit” – meaning sexual intercourse.

“If it is their habit, the Indonesian military cannot accept potential recruits like these.”

An army wife interviewed by HRW said the rationale given to her was economic.

“The military wants healthy couples,” she said. She added: “Military men often travel away from home. They should trust their wives.”

A case brought by Samira Ibrahim led to Egypt banning tests on detainees in military prisons

Do other countries do this?

South Africa:

It’s a hot topic at the moment as a political party has called for high schools to be able to test for female pupils for virginity, to curb teenage pregnancy rates.Opposition to the proposal includes the promotion of abstinence instead, to avoid girls being stigmatised.

It has been seen in the past as a way of stopping the spread of HIV/Aids too.


A case brought by Samira Ibrahim led to Egypt banning tests on detainees in military prisons

HRW has campaigned against Indian hospitals “routinely subjecting rape survivors” to the “two-finger test”.

In 2009, hundreds of women demonstrated against tests imposed on nuns in Kerala and on 151 young women taking part in a state-sponsored mass marriage ceremony.


In 2011, an Egyptian court ordered forced tests on female detainees in military prisons to be stopped.

The court made the decision after a case was brought by protester Samira Ibrahim, who accused the Egyptian army of forcing her to be tested after she was arrested at a protest in Tahrir Square. An Egyptian general had said the tests were carried out so women would not later claim they had been raped.


Tests on some female immigrants from India, Bangladesh and Pakistan were carried out until 1979. They were used to detect whether they were lying about being engaged to a man already living in the country. The claim was that those found to be virgins were more likely to be engaged. The UK Border Agency has since said the practices were “clearly wrong”.


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women’s rights & gender equality

Nigeria’s bill targeting FGM is a positive step, but must be backed by investment

Muslims women walk past the fence of Murtala Mohammed specialist hospital, were victims of last Friday suicide bombing are receiving treatment in Kano, Nigeria, Monday, Jan. 23, 2012, following recent sectarian attacks. The emir of Kano and the state's top politician offered prayers Monday for the more than 150 people who were killed in a coordinated series of attacks on Friday by the radical Islamist sect called Boko Haram which means "Western education is sacrilege" in the Hausa language of Nigeria's north.(AP Photo/Sunday Alamba)Women walk in the city of Kano in northern Nigeria. It is estimated that a quarter of Nigerian women aged between 15 and 49 have undergone female genital mutilation. Photograph: Sunday Alamba/AP Photo

A gender violence law seeking to ban female genital mutilation must be supported by efforts to tackle the attitudes that underpin abuses against women

The Nigerian senate recently passed its violence against persons prohibition (VAPP) bill, which seeks to eliminate female genital mutilation (FGM) as well as all other forms of gender-based violence.

Women’s rights groups, practitioners and activists in Nigeria have been pushing for the law for the past 13 years. It is a major boost not only for Nigeria’s women, but for the nation as a whole. The question is: will it make a practical difference?

Women and girls cannot reach their full potential when their basic rights to health and security are not honoured.

FGM is most often carried out on young girls – robbing them of the chance to have a healthy life – with severe immediate and long-term health complications, often leading to death. In parts of Africa where medicine is not advanced, such as in areas of Sudan where antibiotics are not available, an estimated one-third of girls who undergo FGM will die. Those who survive face lifelong problems including increased risk of infections, cysts, complications during childbirth, and newborn deaths.

It is estimated that 25% of girls and women between the ages of 15 and 49 have undergone FGM in Nigeria. The practice is most widespread in Africa and the Middle East, where it has been carried out on an estimated 125 million girls and women alive today, but it is prevalent around the world. In the UK, where FGM has been outlawed for more than three decades, an estimated 60,000 girls below the age 15 could still be at risk. It is also illegal to take British citizens or residents out of the country to undergo FGM, yet it continues to happen.

Such laws are a must. They are particularly critical for organisations working tirelessly to end FGM. In Nigeria, this law provides them with a legal framework and backing to tackle the problem. The legislation sends a clear message on impunity and serves as a basis for holding government to account.

However, criminalisation of entrenched cultural practices has its limitations. While legal safeguards are an important step towards ending FGM, they are not enough to eliminate it. Ending violence against women and girls requires investment, not just laws written in statute books. This is why we must emphasise community engagement, with a view towards shifting social norms, as a critical component of the eradication of FGM.
Patriarchy allows child marriage and female genital mutilation to flourish
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It is crucial that we scale up efforts to change traditional cultural views that underpin violence against women. Only then will this harmful practice be eliminated. Doing so involves laws and policies, as well as community level engagement and programmes that work to empower girls directly. Education is crucial, and must work in conjunction with school systems. It is also important to promote reporting of the practice, ensure perpetrators are prosecuted and address stigma.


Change will not happen overnight. Investing in research is key to developing effective, sustainable and evidence-based solutions. Harmful practices such as FGM not only affect women and girls, but are also a major impediment to global development efforts to end poverty.

A case in point is a flagship programme from the UK’s Department for International Development, entitled what works to prevent violence against women and girls. The scheme will build evidence on effective solutions to prevent violence against women and girls.

One branch of the programme involves adding to existing data on the economic and social costs of violence against women and girls, which will create a better understanding of the far-reaching consequences of violence at all levels. Producing new evidence is crucial in strengthening the case for resources to implement laws, provide health and social support services, and encourage communities to move away from social norms that support violence.

It has been 20 years since the Beijing declaration and platform for action, a blueprint toward achieving equality that denounces all forms of violence against women. Prioritising the rights and wellbeing of women and girls is long overdue. Violating their right to a safe and productive life not only has a profound effect on them, it has an impact on every one of us.

Ensuring that the human rights of women and girls are protected means flourishing economies, healthy communities and a brighter future for us all.

Stella Mukasa is the director of gender, violence and rights at the International Center for Research on Women, a Washington DC-based global research institute focused on women and girls

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Paraguay: UN experts deplore Government’s failure to protect 10-year-old rape survivor


Credit: OHCHR

11 May 2015 – The Government of Paraguay has failed in its responsibility to protect a 10-year old sexual abuse survivor and provide her with critical and timely treatments, including a “safe and therapeutic” abortion, a group of United Nations experts said today.

The girl’s pregnancy – which came to light in national and international media several weeks ago – was the result of repeated sexual abuse allegedly perpetrated by her stepfather. Yet Paraguay’s reportedly “restrictive” abortion laws only permit the termination of a pregnancy when the life of a woman or girl is at “serious risk.”

“The Paraguayan authorities’ decision results in grave violations of the rights to life, to health, and to physical and mental integrity of the girl as well as her right to education, jeopardising her economic and social opportunities,” warned the four experts composing the UN Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice.

“Despite requests made by the girl’s mother and medical experts to terminate this pregnancy which puts the girl’s life at risk, the State failed to take measures to protect the health as well as the physical and mental integrity and even the life of the 10-year old girl,” they continued. “No proper interdisciplinary and independent expert assessment with the aim to insure the girl’s best interests was done before overturning life-saving treatments, including abortion.”

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child pregnancies are extremely dangerous for the health of pregnant girls as they can lead to complications and death in some cases, especially as girls’ bodies are “not fully developed to carry a pregnancy,” the experts added.

In Latin America, in particular, the UN reports that the risk of maternal death is four times higher among adolescents under 16 years old with 65 per cent of cases of obstetric fistula occurring in the pregnancies of adolescents. In addition, early pregnancies are also dangerous for the babies with a mortality rate 50 per cent higher.

Against that backdrop, the UN experts welcomed last Friday’s decision by Paraguayan authorities to establish a multidisciplinary panel of experts to express itself on the terms of the overall health of the girl and to give an opinion on the risks and recommendations to ensure her health.”

Nevertheless, they noted that girl’s mother had reported the ongoing sexual abuse against her daughter in 2014 and deplored the authorities’ “unresponsiveness to take action.” Moreover, they said they “deeply regret” that the State had “failed in its responsibility to act with due diligence and protect the child.”

The UN Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice is composed of five independent experts from all regions of the world: Emna Aouij of Tunisia, Rashida Manjoo of South Africa, Juan Mendez of Argentina; and Dainius Puras of Lithuania.


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Somali women stalked by rape as they migrate


Times Of Malta

When three members of a militia raped a woman in a Somali town, she was accused of adultery and sentenced to stoning.

Luckily, she managed to escape and arrived safely in Malta, where she followed a programme run by the Jesuit Refugee Service to empower migrant women.

The experiences of this woman and her fellow migrants have been assembled in a booklet “No giving up: Stories of unfinished journeys” that was launched today. It is available in hard copy at the Jesuit Refugee Service in Birkirkara and online.

“One afternoon three militia men raped me. There was a bad clash between Al-Shabaab and another group that day. The news that I had been raped spread and I was ashamed,” the woman’s entry reads. She returned to her farm two months later. One day a young man whom she knew went to her farm just as she was finishing the day’s work.

“People from Al-Shabaab said ‘You have been raped and now you have committed adultery.’ They declared I would be stoned as a punishment.”

This was not the first such incident where she lived, and her neighbours helped her leave the country immediately.

This excerpt is one of the contributions published following group sessions with Somali women held by JRS Malta, which over the past couple of years has increased its focus on women in detention and within the community.

Alexia Rossi of JRS said that the NGO usually advocated on behalf of people, but this time it wanted to encourage women to speak up for themselves.

The booklet was launched this morning in collaboration with the President’s Foundation for the Wellbeing of Society.

“These women have to first identify their rights, because sometimes migrants come from places where the violation of rights is normal.”

Migrant women are in a more vulnerable position because of certain norms in their country, including gender-based violence.

And once they’re on the road, migrating, men outnumber them, making them more vulnerable.

In fact, many of the women who manage to arrive here and speak to JRS in detention have been raped more than once throughout their journey. Once in Malta, detention officers, doctors and interpreters are predominantly male and the women find it very difficult to express themselves.

Following the programme of group sessions, which took place over 10 weeks, a number of these women became willing to speak about their horrific experiences in Somalia and the challenges they faced during the journey for the first time, without fearing for any consequences.

For Kristina Zammit, also of JRS, the fact that these women, who are rejected asylum seekers, have not given up is a success in itself, as many of them could have easily despaired.

The experiences in the booklet in fact include a silver lining: “It is true. We have been rejected, we have no documents and we live in Ħal Far. But most of the time, we make ourselves happy, because if we think about how we have nothing all the time, we will go mad.”

The excerpt continues that the women’s hopes keep them “happy and well”.

“We hope because we have the support of people who help and encourage us, who ask us about our stories, about what we need and what we plan. We feel empowered and encouraged.” The JRS project, the Somali woman says, helps the migrants morally, mentally and psychologically – and they would have otherwise just kept their mouths shut.

President Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca said that the booklet was testament of the resilience of these women. It booklet provided a safe space for them to express themselves and share the challenges of the asylum procedure.

The project, which started in June 2013, gave a rare insight into their harrowing stories through a first hand account of their experiences. The women involved spent between a year and a year and a half in detention.

President Coleiro Preca said research showed that detention had a drastic impact on the health and social life of detainees.

And there was no evidence to show that the threat of detention deterred migration so it was time to reflect on alternatives.

The second part of the project, which has already been embarked upon, is focusing on migrants of different nationalities living in Maltese communities.


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